Confederation of Independent Psychoanalytic Societies

The Confederation of Independent Psychoanalytic Societies (CIPS) is an organization of psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic societies, founded in 1992 to represent the interests of psychoanalysts belonging to independent component societies of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA) in the United States. Membership in CIPS is open to all IPA-accredited societies in the United States, and to all members of the IPA who are not affiliated with CIPS through membership in a CIPS component society.

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Leigh Tobias, PhD, FIPA, is a Training and Supervising Analyst and member of the Infant Observation Faculty at the Psychoanalytic Center of California. She is currently President of the PCC. She also serves as an on-site supervisor and faculty member for the Wright Institute, Los Angeles. She is Past President of The Confederation of Independent Psychoanalytic Institutes (CIPS). She is Secretary of the North American Psychoanalytic Confederation (NAPsaC). Dr. Tobias maintains a full-time... read more


Psychoanalytic empathy has been an elusive, ambivalently regarded topic in psychoanalytic thought. Freud's use of the word “empathy” was not translated as such by Strachey and until recently has been underemphasized. While Freud remained suspicious of the analyst’s emotional reactions toward the patient, many current psychoanalytic writers concur that Freud regarded empathy as essential for establishing the positive transference, a rapport that renders psychoanalytic interpretation possible... read more